(1) Each commission, and each holder of an independent office--
(a) may conduct investigations on its own initiative or on a complaint made by a member of the public;
(b) has the powers necessary for conciliation, mediation and negotiation;
(c) shall recruit its own staff; and
(d) may perform any functions and exercise any powers prescribed by legislation, in addition to the functions and powers conferred by this Constitution.
(2) A complaint to a commission or the holder of an independent office may be made by any person entitled to institute court proceedings under Article 22 (1) and (2).
(3) The following commissions and independent offices have the power to issue a summons to a witness to assist for the purposes of its investigations--
(a) the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission;
(b) the Judicial Service Commission;
(c) the National Land Commission; and
(d) the Auditor-General.